330th ASA Co. (AVN)
History of the 330th ASA Co. (AVN) in Germany
Some histories of the 330th ASA Co. (AVN) in Germany. Feel free to submit your own histories or corrections.

During its history, the 330th ASA Company had served under the ASA umbrella as a direct support unit and a processing company. Upon reactivation on 5 November 1973, the company not only assumed a new type of ASA support mission but began operations in the European Theater for the first time. The mission of the reactivated 330th ASA Company, now turned aviation company, would be to provide support direct to tactical commanders on a real time basis. Upon activation, the unit was assigned to and located with the 502nd ASA Group in Augsburg, Federal republic of Germany.

On 9 January 1974, the first element of the 330th which consisted of CPT John N. Niemczuk, Jr., Commander, one warrant officer, and nine enlisted personnel and four vehicles departed Augsburg for the site which was to become the company headquarters, Building 216 on Sembach Air Base. On 6 January, the ground operations section of the unit occupied the abandoned missile site at Gruenstadter Berg. On 8 May, the unit Aircraft Maintenance Section took temporary possession of a hangar in the southwest corner of Ramstein Air Base. In mid-March MAJ Lemuel G. Brinkley, Jr. arrived to assume command. Finally, the last section of the unit to enter temporary facilities was Flight Operations which moved into Building 2330 at Ramstein Air Base on 22 April 1974.

Within six months of becoming operational, the unit had grown from 0 to over 100 assigned personnel. The company utilized GUARDRAIL aircraft in support of U.S. Army Europe/7th Army. On 29 August 1975, the company headquarters was relocated to Kaiserslautern. The personnel assigned to the 330th over the months and years continued to add to the distinguished lineage of the unit.

In 1976, the Army Security Agency was reorganized into the U.S. Intelligence and Security Command. Although still possessing a worldwide headquarters at Arlington Hall Station, Virginia, the new command lost it's verticalized organizational structure which characterized ASA. Consequently direct tactical support units were transferred to theater commands. On 1 January 1977 the 330th was reassigned to U.S. Army Europe, ending over 30 years association with the ASA.
Written by Sam Hamilton | Full Story from ASA Lives!
Guardrail II, III, IV and V
My name is Roger Brown. After returning from Viet Nam, where I was assigned as an RU-8D pilot with the 138 th. Avn Co (RR) in Phu Bai, and the 146 th. Avn Co. (RR) at Long Thanh North ( later moved to Can Tho), I relocated to Ft. Bliss, TX, where I was assigned to the 156 th. which had been relocated from Viet Nam to the U.S. On this assignment I was sent TDY to Hanau, Germany to care take three RU-21D aircraft which had been evaluated during the previous Re-Forger Exercise. We were six pilots and three maintenance personnel. We had been assigned to keep the aircraft airworthy and to put time on the aircraft while we waited for further instructions from Arlington Station. During that time we flew all over Europe (minus the mission equipment) to keep current. Cpt. Pruitt was in charge, while the remaining pilots were Warrant Officers Larry Henderson, I.W Harper, Larry Jenks, John Johnson, and myself. We were stationed at Hanau AAF for several months but later repositioned to the Kitzingen AAF near Wurtzburg. About five months later we received word to fly the aircraft back to the Moffett Naval Air Station in California. It was there that ESL had been modifying the mission equipment for these aircraft. Our route of flight was from Germany through Scotland, Iceland, Greenland, Labrador, and from the east coast on over to the San Francisco Bay area. We utilized extra internal ferry tanks to give us an additional 480 gallons of fuel. At Moffett Field we participated TDY in mission equipment testing with nightly flights along the California coast near Monterey Bay. Subsequently, many of us were sent to Ft. Rucker, Alabama for Helicopter transition training (as fixed wing only pilots, we were told we had to become dual qualified) prior to returning to Europe and the 330 th.

Upon completion of our training at Ft. Rucker, we were returned to Europe and soon thereafter, were sent to Rota, Spain, where the three aircraft had been shipped . There, we test flew the aircraft and then ferried them on to Ramstein AB in Germany. In the interim, the 330 ASA Aviation Company had been established, and we were assigned permanent party. Throughout my time with the 330 th., the aircraft were always kept at Ramstein, but the company headquarters, which was at Sembach AB, was later moved from Sembach to Kleber Kassern in Kaiserslautern. The Integrated Processing Facility (IPF) was located near Grunstadt at an old hilltop Missile Site.

During my years with the 330 th., I flew the RU-21D, RU-21E, RU-21G and the RU-21H model aircraft. When I wasn?t flying I served first as the Maintenance Tech. Supply Officer, then as the Motor Maintenance Officer, and later the Company Supply and Property Book Officer. Our mission was normally flown at around twenty-seven thousand feet (or as high as you could get ? usually it wouldn?t go any higher) with a slight amount of flap being deployed (5 to 10 deg.) to flatten out the pitch attitude. We flew racecourse patterns along various mission areas from Northern to Southern Germany (essentially 20 miles west along the Iron Curtain). When on station and flying the race course patterns, we were required to make all turns as flat turns, that is, keeping the wings level during the turn (this enhanced the direction finding capability). Mission equipment consisted of multiple ARC-51BX UHF radio?s which were controlled from the IPF at Grunstadt. There, they employed linguists to remotely monitor and DF (primarily) eastern bloc tactical ground and aircraft communications. An encrypted microwave data link was used to pass data and commands back and forth. The aircraft also utilized a sophisticated (for that time) AN/ASN-86 inertial navigation system to provide accurate positioning for the DF capability (and for normal navigation). For those unfamiliar with the RU-21 aircraft ? it was unpressurized, thus requiring the wearing of an oxygen mask at altitude. It also relied on a combustion cockpit heater located in the nose wheel well. It used ram air intake to provide flow for combustion and cooling. Flying at or near the aircrafts service ceiling resulted in slow flight which meant a rather high pitch attitude. Consequently, we would flatten the pitch of the aircraft as much as possible by lowering the flaps slightly(this was necessary to provide reliable DF bearings), one out of ten times the combustion heater would shut down due to inadequate air flow and cause a circuit breaker located in the wheel well to open. At that altitude, it got extremely cold extremely quick. That would always necessitate a rapid descent and a return to Ramstein. We flew these missions day or night and in all weather. Even the DF antennas had de-icing capability.

Upon leaving the 330 th., I was transferred to the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. During the first year there, I was called and asked if I would consider ferrying some RU-21H?s from Lakehurst, NJ back over to Germany. Delivering those aircraft was my last association with the 330 th. and the Army Security Agency as a whole. I left the active Army in 79 and after several civilian flying jobs I became a full time Alaska National Guard Maintenance Officer, Test Pilot, and Standardization Instructor Pilot. I retired from the military with 27 years of federal service in 1992. Next I was employed by the Federal Aviation Administration where I serve as Aviation Safety Inspector. Early on I was assigned to an all-cargo airline who had many military contracts, several of which were in Europe. Three or four times a year I spent several weeks in surveillance of their operations based at Ramstein and serving Europe. It was always nice to re-visit Sembach, Ramstein, Lanstuhl, Winweiller, Volgelway, Kaiserslautern, and Grunstadt. Of course everything has changed over the many years ? little to nothing remains that was associated with the 330 th., and although I believe the RU mission aircraft have steadily evolved, even to the present day, a continued presence in Europe does not appear to be evident. I continue to work for the FAA where I have been employed as the FAA?s Lockheed L-382/C-130 pilot and flight engineer licensing and certification examiner for many years. I plan to call it quits and will retire permanently next year.
Written by Roger G. Brown
The new GUARDRAIL II system had been tested in Europe from September to December 1972, and USAREUR was so impressed with the upgraded system that it had recommended retaining it in Europe. The GUARDRAIL II's system encompassed signal-intercept and direction-finding equipment mounted on RU-21 aircraft, which through air and ground relays was capable of providing near-real-time tactical intelligence information to combat commanders. After extensive surveys and negotiations throughout 1973 to find a home for the aircraft and its unit, the 330th Army Security Agency (ASA) Company, it was decided to station flight operations and maintenance elements at Ramstein Air Base, with administrative support and other elements at Sembach and Gruenstadt. The equipment and aircraft arrived by ship in the spring of 1974 and were ready for operational test and evaluation (OTE) on 26 August 1974. The GUARDRAIL II-system successfully completed its OTE in March 1975 and started its intelligence mission in support of theater requirements in April 1975. The combination of its mission tracks being outside of the JCS-defined "sensitive airspace" (20 miles next to the border) and the passive nature of its detection equipment significantly lowered the political sensitivity of GUARDRAIL II's operations.

To further complicate matters for the 330th ASA .Company in 1974 -- when it was receiving its GUARDRAIL II aircraft and attempting to achieve OTE for the new system -- the company also had to field its two new QUICK LOOK aircraft in mid-July. Like the GUARDRAIL deployment, there had been a great deal of discussion about where to put these two aircraft in a theater where airfields were critically overcrowded. Although it would have been desirable to, collocate them at Ramstein Air Base with the rest of the 330th's assets, there just was not enough room. Hanau was the next best choice because the 73d MI Company was located there with its OV-1Ds and OV-1Cs, and since QUICK LOOK was mounted on RV-1Cs -- a modified OV-1C -- there were obvious maintenance advantages and the incoming QUICK LOOK pilots could train on the 73d's OV-1Cs. However, Hanau had runway limitations for the QUICK LOOK aircraft and it too was overcrowded, so the two QUICK LOOK aircraft and Detachment 1, 330th ASA Company, which consisted of 25 personnel, were stationed at Kitzingen Army Air Field. Since the QUICK LOOK's flight tracks would be in the "sensitive air-space," it was imperative the pilots be thoroughly trained before assuming their operational mission and, as a consequence, they were trained by the border-experienced pilots of the 73d in their OV-1Cs. The QUICK LOOK system was approved for reconnaissance missions in the "sensitive airspace" in March 1975. In June 1975 the QUICK LOOK aircraft moved to Echterdingen Army Air Field near Stuttgart, which resulted in all of USAREUR's Mohawks being collocated on the same field, since the 73d had moved there recently with its OV-1Ds. (The 73d's OV-1Cs had been returned to the United States in October 1974, except for one, which had been transferred to the 330th for training purposes.)

1975 was a significant year in another respect for the aerial surveillance mission. The data-link compatibility problem of the new SLAR equipment installed on the OV-1D was finally solved in the latter part of the year. This followed a rather tortuous period between the OV-ID's fielding in 1972 and 1975, which saw the command try several interim solutions to the problem. In 1973 the command had tried to use KY-8 and KY-28 secure voice communications devices between the ground stations and the aircraft with only marginal results and decided to further test the concept in 1974. However, the testing :was delayed due to a lengthy grounding of the OV-1s from January through April 1974 because two of them had crashed during a short period of time. When testing of the devices was resumed, it was discovered that they were not reliable for air-to-ground transmissions in this configuration. Next, the command tried issuing acetate overlay maps of the border area to system operators on the aircraft and in the ground stations. When the SLAR equipment detected activity, the aircraft crew indicated this to the ground station personnel by giving references to a sector identified by a letter-number combination on the acetate maps. Tests in November 1974 indicated the system was usable. In the meantime, however, discussions with the manufacturer of the data-link system used with the older SLAR equipment (AN/UPD-2) revealed that it would be relatively easy to modify it to be compatible with the new SLAR equipment on the OV-1Ds. The contract was let in February 1975 and the upgraded data-link system (AN/TQ-2A) was delivered and operational in both corps by 5 November 1975. The new equipment worked very well during its test period, and timely inflight reporting from the SLAR missions (code named LARD CAN) was again available to the border units.

In the latter part of 1978 both the QUICK LOOK and GUARDRAIL II systems were upgraded in USAREUR. The QUICK LOOK II system replaced the developmental QUICK LOOK system, becoming operational on 7 October 1978. The new system was mounted on six RV-1Ds and was operated by the 73d MI Company (AS) instead of the 330th ASA Company. It had a day-and-night, all-weather capability and was effective for approximately 150 kilometers (line-of-sight) against pulsed and continuous wave emitters. Missions were flown at 10 000 feet on JCS-approved flight tracks in the "sensitive airspace." It averaged 20 missions a month; in comparison, the QUICK LOOK I system had averaged 12 missions per month. The code name for its missions was CARAT ROCK.

The new GUARDRAIL V system (its mission code name was CARD WHALE) replaced the aging GUARDRAIL II system and was declared operational on 28 November 1978. Operated by the 330th ASA Company, the system was mounted on 6 RU-2H aircraft (plus a seventh aircraft for maintenance float) and flew approximately 25 missions per month. The 2-aircraft missions were normally flown at around 18,000 feet on JCS-approved nonsensitive tracks. It also had a day-and-night, all-weather capability and was effective to a depth of 300 kilometers against ground-based emitters and 450 kilometers against aerial emitters.

Both upgraded systems improved the command's aerial surveillance capabilities, and USAREUR was scheduled to receive additional sets of QUICK LOOK II and GUARDRAIL V in 1979. Stationing problems for the aircraft precluded this, however, and the deployments were rescheduled for 1980. Eventually, only the QUICK LOOK II set of six additional RV-1D aircraft was fielded by the 73d in the summer of 1982, with the additional set of GUARDRAIL V aircraft scheduled to be deployed in 1984.

Organizationally, things had been fairly straightforward for the aerial surveillance units up through 1978; however, at that point they became involved in an Army-wide reorganization of intelligence and electronic warfare assets. Many of these assets were controlled by higher headquarters, such as USAREUR headquarters, or were part of INSCOM units in a stovepipe arrangement. The new doctrine called for placing the "combat electronic warfare intelligence" (CEWI) assets in companies, battalions, and groups that would be directly attached to the tactical units they supported. In 1978, CEWI planning called for each USAREUR corps to have one CEWI group, part of which would be composed of a CEWI aerial exploitation battalion. However, the command only had enough aircraft and equipment to form one aerial exploitation battalion. As a consequence, most of the 2d MI Battalion, including the two aerial surveillance units, was reorganized as the 2d MI Battalion (Aerial Exploitation - AE) on 16 May 1979. It continued to be assigned to the 502d ASA Group, an INSCOM unit, until 16 January 1981, when it was reassigned to USAREUR.
Written by William E. Stacy | Full Story from www.history.army.mil
A Pre-History of the 330th
My name is Pat Moyna, CW4 USA (Retired) 988A/982A. I was never assigned to the 330th but I did participate in the NSA Phase I Operational Test of the Guardrail Prototype at the old Mace Site in the summer/fall of 1971. It was a grand TDY with a crew hand picked by Frank Newton and his staff. Many of the legends of ASA were on board. Civilians like Frank and Smokey Rush, Army troops like Dave Kralik, Paul Murray, Joe Moore, Don Davidson, Bud McDonald and Dave ''Der Hund'' Merritt. I was a replacement for a guy who was recalled to the states and arrived shortly the Canadians had crashed the F106 into the hill just outside the fence. The Canadian Salvage Crew was still there from Lahr, policing up the fragments for the investigation.
For the OT our acft flew out of Sembach along with the accompanying CREEKRAIL DF bird, an old C-47 (Guardrail with DF had not been fully developed yet).
Some years later (1980-81) while assigned to the 415th ASA Company, just up the road in Idar-Oberstein, CW2s Eddie Washington, John Lowe and I visited the 330th site to coordinate joint training with 330th Mission managers, CW2s Larry Kinsey Henry Hobde and Earl Rollins. We were fielding the TSQ-114 Trailblazer and we had some excellent results integrating air and ground assets with direct contact using the TCT. We operated out of both Meissner and Wobeck during the test. Great stuff!
A Post-330th History of the Grünstadt Site
I was at Grünstadt from '62 through '66 with the Mace. Have been back many times over the years after I retired from the AF. I worked for an European company for twenty some years after my AF career and that afforded me the opportunity to travel to Germany and Holland numerous times on business. And since I had married a girl from Grünstadt we have gone over many other time on our own as well. Forty-five trips there in all. Each trip I'd take the time to visit the site if at all possible. Over the years the site gradually fell apart from disuse and the weather, missile shelters were removed and all buildings were eventually removed, dinning hall burned down. Only thing remaining now is the fencing and gates and inside the fence the pads from the former squadron HQ building, Airmen and NCO barracks and maintenance/hobby shop and inside the secure area the pads from the launch facilities. For a while in the '80s it was used as a paint ball arena run by the U.S. Army out of Mannheim. Occasionally on visits I would encounter an Army or AF communications group using the Hill while they were on deployment. They were all in tents and vans, earlier visits found them deployed inside and on later trips outside the fence. The site was returned to the German government in 1998 and on our last trip there in late 2008 there was a sign on the main gate indicating that it was now owned by a private group. No indication of who or what the group was. The Grünstadt RC model club still operates from there as they did when I was stationed there.
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